Reply 2 Behavior motivation

 

I have learned numerous important concepts from this week’s reading. One of the significant concepts was the definition of motivation. Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Intensity describes how hard a person tries. The persistence dimension of motivation measures how long a person can maintain effort—people who are motivated stay with a task long enough to achieve their goals.

I also learned that there are motivation theories. The best-known theory of motivation is Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This theory believes that within every individual, there is a hierarchy of five needs, and a sixth has been proposed recently. The original five needs are; physiology which includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. The second is safety-security from physical and emotional harm. The third is social belongingness which entails affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. The fourth is esteem which entails internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external factors such as status, recognition, and attention. The fifth is self-actualization which is the drive to become what we are capable of becoming, including growth, achieving our potential, and self-fulfillment. As each need becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Therefore, to motivate an individual, one needs to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is currently on and focus on satisfying needs at or above that level.

Another important concept I learned from the weekly reading is the two-factor theory. This is also called a motivation-hygiene theory. The two-factor theory relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction.

Another theory is McClelland’s theory of needs that believes achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that explain motivation. (nAch)is the drive to excel, to achieve a relationship to a set of standards. (now) is the need to make others behave in a way they would not behave otherwise. (nAff) is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. The three needs are linked to important job outcomes. To begin with, when a job has a high degree of personal responsibility and feedback, along with an intermediate degree of risk, high achievers are strongly motivated. Secondly, a high need for achievement does not necessarily make someone a good manager; this is because people with a high need for achievement are interested in how they do personally and not in influencing others to do well. Thirdly, the most effective leaders are high in need of power and need for affiliation.

Response

Someone getting rewarded for their performance but yet being disappointed in the reward that they receive would be the result of cognitive evaluation theory which believes that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that has been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling.

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