# cryptography

The ciphertext below was encrypted using a substitution cipher (by replacing one English etter with another letter). [15 points]

lrvmnir bpr sumvbwvr jx bpr lmiwv yjeryrkbi jx qmbm wi bpr xjvni mkd ymibrut jx irhx wi bpr riirkvr jx ymbinlmtmipw utn qmumbr dj w ipmhh but bj rhnvwdmbr bpr yjeryrkbi jx bpr qmbm mvvjudwko bj yt wkbrusurbmbwjk lmird jk xjubt trmui jx ibndt

wb wi kjb mk rmit bmiq bj rashmwk rmvp yjeryrkb mkd wbi iwokwxwvmkvr mkd ijyr ynib urymwk nkrashmwkrd bj ower m vjyshrbr rashmkmbwjk jkr cjnhd pmer bj lr fnmhwxwrd mkd wkiswurd bj invp mk rabrkb bpmb pr vjnhd urmvp bpr ibmbr jx rkhwopbrkrd ywkd vmsmlhr jx urvjokwgwko ijnkdhrii ijnkd mkd ipmsrhrii ipmsr w dj kjb drry ytirhx bpr xwkmh mnbpjuwbt lnb yt rasruwrkvr cwbp qmbm pmi hrxb kj djnlb bpmb bpr xjhhjcwko wi bpr sujsru msshwvmbwjk mkd wkbrusurbmbwjk w jxxru yt bprjuwri wk bpr pjsr bpmb bpr riirkvr jx jqwkmcmk qmumbr cwhh urymwk wkbmvb

Compute the relative frequency of all letters in the ciphertext and compare those frequencies with the relative letter frequency of the English language provided below and try to decrypt the above ciphertext. Show the process. Note that the text is relatively short and that the letter frequencies in it might not perfectly align with that of general English language from the table.

******************there is a image here just attaching with upload files*******************

2. The following ciphertext is encoded with a shift cipher (i.e., every letter is shifted the same amount —- if A is replaced by C then B is replaced by D. If we can break the encryption of one letter, we can break all others): Break the ciphertext. Show the process. [10 points]

3. Explain what “8+4 ≡ 3 mod 9” means. [5 points]

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