LINUX LAB 3: LINUX SHELL (BASH) BASICS This lab will let your practice the bash shell basics



  1. Use the “man” command to view documentation of the “more” command. Find out what the option “-d” does. Use this option with the “more” command to view the “rgb.txt” file.
  1. Use the “type” command to find out if the following commands are shell builtins: type, less, export, ls, bash, man.
  1. Follow lecture notes slide #12 to change your command prompt. Take a screenshot (#3-1) after you changed to the command prompt three times.
  1. On the command line, type “cat > lab3-4” and return to quickly create a new text file. Enter your name and major as the file content. Use Ctrl+d to end editing. Then use the “cat” command again to appendsome of your skills to (note NOT to replace) the “lab3-4” file. Check your file to make sure you do not overwrite the original content. Take a screenshot (#3-2) which clearly shows the second command you use.
  1. When you use the redirect output symbol (>) with a command, the shell creates the output file even the command fails. Demonstrate that. Hint: how to generate a failed command (i.e. a command thatproduces an error message)?
  1. Perform the following tasks. Effectively use channel rerouting, pipe operator and filter commands (see lecture notes #14-17)
    1. Given any directory, find out all directories in it (including the hidden ones, or not).
    2. Given any directory, find out the number of all files (including directories, and all hidden items) in it
    3. Given any directory, find out the number of all hidden items (files and directories) in it
    4. Take a screenshot (#3-3) of any one step a) to c) which clearly shows the command you use and theresult.
    5. Find out the first 20 commands executed and recorded in history.
    6. Find all commands in command history that starting with “ls”, and save the result to a file. (This will be a bit challenging.)
  1. Try the following and see what happens. Explains the behavior.
    1. echo “.””.”
    2. echo “hello world”
    3. echo hello world
    4. echo “hello!1”; (how to display the text as is?)
  1. Assume you have made the following variable assignment: person=zach How can you produce the following outputs on the screen?
  1. zach
  2. $person

b) “zach” – Take a screenshot (#3-4) which clearly shows the command you use and the result.

a) “$person”


What’s the difference between the following two statements? How many arguments does each echo command see?

  1. echo “$var1”
  2. echo $var1
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